The key to losing weight could lie in manipulating our beliefs about how filling we think food will be before we eat it, suggesting that portion control is all a matter of perception.

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GENETICS – A complex network of genes, in combination with a low-calorie diet and exercise, appears to be a key factor in a long life expectancy. Professor Johan Auwerx’s team has published an article on this topic in Cell magazine.

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Scientists from the University of Southampton presented findings this week at the world’s biggest dementia research conference on a vaccine trail for dementia. The study, funded by the Alzheimer’s Research Trust, has revealed important new evidence about the hallmark protein build-up that takes place during Alzheimer’s.

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Athens, Ga. – Companion animals that have a long-term need for anticoagulant drug therapies may soon find help in a top-selling antiplatelet drug marketed to humans: clopidogrel, commonly known by the trade-name Plavix.

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Inherited glycosylation disorder might be treatable with simple supplement.

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New method could lead to innovative clean energy and bioremediation technologies, and help explain how microbes shape Earth’s climate.

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New research from the University of Otago, Christchurch, shows that vitamin C can help curb the growth of cancer cells.

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MANHATTAN -- Summer just wouldn't be complete without mosquitoes nipping at exposed skin. Or would it?

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(CHICAGO)– Hip problems can sideline even the best athletes, but a new study led by orthopedic experts from Rush University Medical Center indicates that the use of minimally invasive arthroscopic surgery to treat painful disorders of the hip may give athletes who undergo the procedure another opportunity to resume their sport back at their pre-injury level of competition.

The researchers at Rush determined that 78 percent of athletes suffering from hip labral tear caused by internal ball and socket joint damage to the hip also known as hip femoral acetabular impingement (FAI) were able to return to their sport within an average of a little more than nine months following a hip arthroscopy. Also, 90 percent of the athletes were capable of competing at the same level as they had prior to their initial hip impairment.

“Arthroscopic hip surgery is an outpatient procedure that can decrease soft tissue trauma and decrease blood loss, leading to a faster recovery period compared to a more invasive open surgery,” said study lead investigator Dr. Shane J. Nho, who is asports medicine and hip arthroscopy expert at Rush University Medical Center.  Nho also is an assistant professor of orthopedic surgery and co-head of the Hip Study Group at Rush University.

The study looked at arthroscopic surgical outcomes of 47 high-level, college and professional as well as high school varsity athletes in a wide range of sports including ice hockey, soccer, baseball, swimming, lacrosse, field hockey, football, running, tennis, horseback riding and crew.  The average age of patients involved in the study was 23. All patients underwent arthroscopic surgery and were tracked for an average of 16 months to assess their ability to return to a high-level of competitive sport.

Hip arthroscopy is a less invasive outpatient procedure compared to traditional open hip surgery.  It is performed by an orthopedic surgeon who makes small incisions about 1 centimeter each that permits the insertion of  a tiny camera in order to visualize the inside of a joint. Small surgical instruments are then used through the incisions to make the repairs.

All patients involved in the study were diagnosed with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), a condition that occurs when the femoral head of the thigh bone rubs abnormally against the acetabulum, or cup-like socket of the hip joint.  This rubbing results in damage to the rim of the hip socket as well as the cartilage that covers the hip bones.

“Some people may be genetically inclined to develop FAI, but many athletes experience early on-set of symptoms of FAI because of their athletic activities require a high degree of motion and force through the joint,” said Nho.  “Symptoms of FAI symptoms include pain, limited range of motion, and for athletes, loss of the ability to compete at their top level.”

Nho presented the study findings at the annual meeting of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine held in July in Providence, R. I.   

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MADISON - Using novel screens to sort through libraries of drugs already approved for use in human patients, a team of Wisconsin researchers has identified several compounds that could be used to treat a rare and deadly neurological disorder.

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LAWRENCE — A new automated vocal analysis technology could fundamentally change the study of language development as well as the screening for autism spectrum disorders and language delay, reports a study in the July 19 online Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Specialized brain training targeted at the regions of a rat’s brain that process sound reversed many aspects of normal, age-related cognitive decline and improved the health of the brain cells, according to a new study from researchers at University of California, San Francisco.

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The chains of sugar molecules, or carbohydrates, that cover the outside of the highly variable HIV virus remain constant, are different from those found on human cells, and could form the basis of a promising new approach to an AIDS vaccine, according to research led by the University of Oxford.

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Researchers discover role for epigenetics in cellular energy regulation.

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Children's lives can be saved if HIV treatment starts earlier

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Scientists have identified key genes responsible for a severe inflammatory disease that has spread along the old silk trading routes from the Far East to the edge of Europe.

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New Haven, Conn. — A new Yale University study reveals that gender plays an important role in determining the risk of specific psychiatric illnesses in children of alcoholics. The gender of both the alcoholic parent and the child were key factors in the types of disorders that develop. The full paper will be published in the October, 2010 issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, but results of the study are available now on the journal’s “Early View.”

Parental alcoholism was associated with an overall higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, regardless of the gender of the children. But when broken down by specific illness, gender-related differences became clear:

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(SACRAMENTO, Calif.) — MediCal patients may be taking dangerous amounts of acetaminophen, according to new research from UC Davis. Published in the July/August issue of the Annals of Pharmacotherapy, the study showed that the analgesic, generally considered safe at four grams a day or less, is prescribed to some patients in quantities far exceeding that guideline.

“Although small, the number of patients who could have taken 16 grams or more for at least one day is very concerning,” said lead author Timothy Albertson, acting chair of internal medicine for UC Davis Health System, “and the fact that many patients had total prescriptions that could have resulted in more than 100 days of four grams per day or more is truly alarming.”

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European Science Foundation publishes new report on male reproductive health.

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ANN ARBOR, Mich.—Young people who are overexposed to antibacterial soaps containing triclosan may suffer more allergies, and exposure to higher levels of Bisphenol A among adults may negatively influence the immune system, a new University of Michigan School of Public Health study suggests.

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Geneva, 26 November 2010. After less than three weeks of heavy-ion running, the three experiments studying lead ion collisions at the LHC have already brought new insight into matter as it would have existed in the very first instants of the Universe’s life. The ALICE experiment, which is optimised for the study of heavy ions, published two papers just a few days after the start of lead-ion running. Now, the first direct observation of a phenomenon known as jet quenching has been made by both the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. This result is reported in a paper from the ATLAS collaboration accepted for publication yesterday in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters. A CMS paper will follow shortly, and results from all of the experiments will be presented at a seminar on Thursday 2 December at CERN. Data taking with ions continues to 6 December.

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A fragile atmosphere infused with oxygen and carbon-dioxide has been discovered at Saturn's moon Rhea by the Cassini-Huygens mission - the first time a spacecraft has captured direct evidence of an oxygen atmosphere at a world other than Earth.

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Tests on postmenopausal women taking hormone therapy (HT) suggest that the drugs can make their brains function more like those of younger women.   

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WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. - Researchers have found evidence that an environmental pollutant may play an important role in causing multiple sclerosis and that a hypertension drug might be used to treat the disease.

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Scientists from the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) have managed to direct the self-assembly of rod-shaped molecules into rotors only few nanometers in size. The tiny systems serve the study of forces that act on molecules on surfaces and in cage-like structures. Their findings are published in the current online issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA).

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In two out of three breast tumors, extraordinarily high levels of the estrogen receptor ERa are found. Scientists of the German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ) have now uncovered a mechanism which causes this overproduction. This result might contribute to developing new strategies for fighting the most frequent type of cancer affecting women.

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Do examples of rejuvenation exist in nature? Yes, during reproduction! For the first time, a team from the Laboratoire de Biologie Moleculaire de la Cellule (CNRS/ENS Lyon/Universite de Lyon 1) has managed to visualize, in the model organism C. elegans, the sudden “rejuvenation” of oocytes just before fertilization. Published in the journal Aging Cell, this work opens new avenues for understanding ageing and the diseases that are associated with it.

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A study published today suggests that older men affected by erectile dysfunction may have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The authors of the study say it highlights the importance for men affected by the condition to discuss it with their GP.

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Widely prescribed for their cholesterol-lowering properties, recent clinical research indicates that statins can produce a second, significant health benefit: lowering the risk of severe bacterial infections such as pneumonia and sepsis. A new explanation for these findings has been discovered by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Skaggs School of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, who describe for the first time how statins activate the bacterial killing properties of white blood cells.

The research is published in the November 18, 2010 issue of Cell Host & Microbe. 

Led by Victor Nizet, MD, professor of pediatrics and pharmacy, and Christopher Glass, MD, PhD, professor of medicine and cellular & molecular medicine, the UC San Diego team found that phagocytes (white blood cells that kill and ingest harmful bacteria, foreign particles and dead or dying cells) became more effective after being exposed to statins.

Surprisingly, the statin-induced improvement in bacterial killing did not correspond to increased uptake of bacteria by these specialized white blood cells.  Rather, the researchers found that statins stimulated the phagocytes to release "extracellular traps" – specialized webs of DNA-based filaments embedded with anti-microbial peptides and enzymes capable of ensnaring and killing bacteria before they spread in the body.

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Scientists are reporting the first direct evidence that a subtle change in the physical properties of a tissue can affect its function. The finding has immediate implications for understanding several rare hearing disorders, they said, and ultimately could offer insight into such conditions as osteoporosis, arthritis, cardiovascular disease and cancer.

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The first results of the mission led by the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research have now been published.

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ST. PAUL, Minn. – Contrary to earlier research, a new, long-term study suggests that cholesterol level in mid-life may not be linked to later development of Alzheimer’s disease, according to a study published in the November 10, 2010, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. However, the results suggest that large decreases in cholesterol levels in old age could be a better predictor of developing the memory-robbing disease.

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New Haven, Conn. — Women who routinely perform moderate - to vigorous-intensity exercise for 2.5 hours or more weekly have a significantly reduced risk of endometrial cancer, new research by the Yale School of Public Health has discovered. The findings were presented at the ninth annual AACR Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research Conference in Philadelphia this week.

The study examined hundreds of women and found that those who exercised at least 150 minutes weekly—which could be something as simple as moderate-paced walking—had a 34 percent reduced risk of endometrial cancer compared with their sedentary peers.

This association was particularly pronounced among active women with a body mass index (BMI) less than 25, where the reduction in risk was 73 percent compared with inactive women with a BMI greater than 25. Although body mass index showed a strong association with endometrial cancer, even women who were overweight, but still active, had a 52 percent lower risk.

While previous research has found a similar link between exercise and endometrial cancer risk, the Yale study examined physical activity measures in more detail and looked at joint associations of BMI and physical activity.

“These findings show the importance of physical activity in reducing risk of endometrial cancer,” said Hannah Arem, a doctoral student at School of Public Health and one of the paper’s authors. “Public health programs should encourage physical activity for those who have the highest risk of endometrial cancer, including women who are overweight and obese.”

Researchers examined data collected from a study that enrolled 668 women with endometrial cancer and compared them to 665 other women of similar age who served as controls.

They identified 29 types of activities (such as yoga, walking, tennis and swimming) and measured the intensity and frequency of the activity using a standardized scale.

The relationship between endometrial cancer risk and physical activity involves sex hormones and insulin pathways, with reductions in the percentage of body fat being a major biological factor.

Endometrial cancer forms in the tissue that lines the uterus. There are approximately 43,000 new cases of the disease in the United States each year and nearly 8,000 women die from the cancer annually.

Other School of Public Health researchers involved in the study include Melinda Irwin, Harvey Risch and Herbert Yu, also of the Yale Cancer Center, and Lingeng Lu and Yang Zhou.

Contact: Michael Greenwood, Tel: 203-737-5151, Email: michael. greenwood@yale. edu

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